Critics of bilateral and regional approaches to trade liberalization have many additional arguments. They indicate that these approaches could undermine and replace the WTO`s multilateral approach, which should be favoured for a comprehensive approach based on a non-discriminatory approach, instead of supporting and complementing it. Therefore, the long-term outcome of bilateralism could be a deterioration of the global trading system into competing and discriminatory regional trading blocs, which complicates the fluidity of goods flows between countries. Moreover, the reform of issues such as agricultural export subsidies cannot be effectively addressed at the bilateral or regional level. This golden age ended on June 28, 1914, when Archducator Franz Ferdinand was shot by an assassin and plunged Europe into World War I. When the war ended in 1918, the world trading system was in ruins. Unfortunately, the United States has turned its back on international cooperation and the victorious European powers have demanded harsh reparations from Germany. The current multilateral trade round, the Doha Development Round, was launched in 2001. These negotiations are expected to improve the capacity of developing countries to participate in the global trading system, significantly liberalize trade in agriculture and services and further reduce barriers to trade in non-agricultural products.
Although these rounds reduced the tariffs imposed by members on imports from other members, GATT members were free to impose on non-members any trade barriers they wished. Indeed, from 1951 to 1974, the United States imposed tariffs at the level of Smoot Hawley on imports from the Soviet Union and other countries of the Communist Bloc, when the President selectively renounced these tariffs on some countries of the Communist bloc while he maintained them for others, and Smoot Hawley tariffs still apply to North Korea and Cuba. Mercantilist trade policy discouraged trade agreements between nations. This is due to the fact that governments have supported local industry by using tariffs and quotas for imports, as well as banning the export of tools, capital goods, skilled labor or anything else that could help foreign countries compete with domestic production of industrial goods. In recognition of this new status as a world trade rule, GATT was renamed the World Trade Organization (WTO). As a result of the experience of the Smoot Hawley Customs Act, Congress has often delegated the power to negotiate trade agreements to the President under the Fast Track Authority and more recently as the Trade Promotion Authority (TPA). This power was incorporated into WTO legislation in 1994, but this power expired on 1 July 2007. After eight years without trade promotion power, Congress finally re-signed it in early 2015 and the president signed it on June 29, 2015. . .